© 2015 Phoenix Hardwood Floors

The Janka hardness test measures the resistance of a sample of wood to denting and wear. It measures the force to embed an 11.28 mm (.444 in) steel ball into wood to half the ball's diameter. This method leaves an indentation. A common use of Janka hardness ratings is to determine whether a species is suitable for use as flooring. 

The hardness of wood varies with the direction of the wood grain. Testing on the surface of a plank, perpendicular to the grain, is said to be of "side hardness". Testing the cut surface of a stump is called a test of "end hardness". 

The results are stated in various ways, which can lead to confusion, especially when the actual units employed are often not attached. Overall, the resulting measure is always one of force.  In the United States, the measurement is in pounds-force (lbf). In Sweden it is in kilograms-force (kgf), and in Australia, either in newtons (N) or kilonewtons (kN). Sometimes the results are treated as units, for example "660 Janka".

The Janka Hardness test results tabulated below were done in accordance with ASTM D 1037-12 testing methods. Lumber stocks tested ranges from 1" to 2" thick. The tabulated Janka Hardness numbers are an average. There is a standard deviation associated with each species, but these values are not given.  It is important to note no testing was done on actual flooring. Other factors affect how flooring performs: the type of core for engineered flooring such as pine, HDF, poplar, oak, birch; grain direction and thickness; floor or top wear surface, etc. The chart is not to be considered an absolute; it is meant to help people understand which woods are harder than others

Janka

350

380

410

470

490

540

540

540

600

800

840

850

850

850

850

891

930

950

950

950

950

950

950

960

1010

1020

1055

1100

1100

1160

1170

1200

1200

1210

1220

1220

1220

1220

1260

1260

1260

1260

1260

1260

1294

1294

1320

1320

1320

1330

1335

1335

1350

1360

1400

1400

1439

1450

1450

1450

1450

1450

1450

1450

1450

1460

1500

1520

1548

1560

1712

1780

1810

1820

1830

1830

1860

1878

1900

1930

1960

1970

1970

2010

2020

2140

2160

2200

2200

2200

2250

2318

2400

2400

2410

2410

2410

2430

2430

2440

2480

2490

2490

2500

2520

2520

2532

2620

2690

2690

2700

2760

2900

2920

2960

3000

3080

3220

3230

3330

3340

3340

3370

3390

3590

3660

3660

3670

3690

3710

3730

3800

4380

Specie Name

Buckeye Burl

Aspen

Basswood

Guanacaste (Parota)

Butternut

American Chestnut

Poplar

Mappa Burl

Spanish Cedar

Genuine Mahogany

Leopardwood

Quilted Western Maple

Western Maple Burl

Curly Western Maple

Black Ash

Lacewood

Anigre

Cherry

Tornillo

Curly Maple (Red Leaf)

Cherry Burl

Maple (Red Leaf)

Curly Cherry

Peruvian Walnut

Walnut

Holly

Curly Pyinma

African Mahogany

Figured Mango

Thuya Burl

Koa

Redheart

Masur Birch

Nicaraguan Rosewood

Red Oak

Curly Oak

Quarter Sawn Red Oak

Spalted Oak

Birch

Amboyna Burl

Curly Narra

Flame Birch

Birch Burl

Narra

Figured Makore

Makore

White Ash

Curly White Ash

Swamp Ash

Shedua

Quarter Sawn White Oak

White Oak

Ebiara

English Brown Oak

Mayan Walnut

Eucalyptus

Quilted Sapele

Birdseye Maple

Hard Maple

Curly Maple (Hard Maple)

Quarter Sawn Maple

Bark Pocket Maple

Hard Maple Burl

Spalted Maple

Rift Sawn Hard Maple

Madrone Burl

Sapele

Canarywood

Honey Locust

Afrormosia

Merbau

Black & White Ebony

Afzelia Burl

Hickory

Zebrawood

Figured Zebrawood

Jarrah Burl

Yellowheart

Red Palm

Wenge

Bolivian Rosewood

Padauk

Ziricote

Bocote

Black Palm

Sucupira

Goncalo Alves

Chechen

Honduras Rosewood

Honduras Rosewood Burl

Chakte Viga

Spalted Tamarind

Osage Orange (Argentine)

Santos Mahogany

Figured Bubinga

Quilted Bubinga

Bubinga

Cochen Rosewood

Indian Ebony

E. Indian Rosewood

Tamboti

Red Mallee Burl

Brown Mallee Burl

Tulipwood

Purpleheart

Figured Purpleheart

Marblewood

Amazon Rosewood

Jatoba

Olivewood

Granadillo

Osage Orange (USA)

Bloodwood

Yellow Box Burl

Cocobolo

Mun Ebony

Gaboon Ebony

Macassar Ebony

Pink Ivory

Cumaru

Kingwood

Camatillo

Grey Box Burl

Mopani

Brown Ebony

Katalox

Figured Katalox

African Blackwood

Brazilian Ebony

Lignum Vitae (Argentine)

Red Coolibah Burl

Snakewood

Lignum Vitae (Genuine)